Politeness Theories in Conversations with Special Reference to Cather's Short Story "On the Gulls' Road": A Pragmatic Analysis.
Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense,
2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-68
AbstractThe current study addresses politeness theory, which is one of the salient pragmatic theories in addition to Speech Acts and Implicature theories. According to a number of linguists, this theory is branched into different theories, three of which are tackled in this study : Politeness Principle Theory, Face Theory, and Politeness Systems Theory by Leech(1983), Brown and Levinson(1987),and Scollon and Scollon(2001),respectively. Therefore, this study aims at investigating linguistically, how polite or impolite styles are measured in conversations? their impact on these conversations, and how politeness theories affect the addresser’s intended meaning? It is hypothesized that politeness theories of Politeness Principle, Face theory, and Politeness Systems work together to decide on polite/impolite style. The violation of some politeness rules does not necessarily lead to impoliteness due to some social relations. To validate these hypotheses, the study falls into two parts. It begins by briefly over viewing the theoretical framework underlying politeness, in particular discussing some definitions of politeness and Politeness Principle and its maxims, exploring the Face theory and its strategies by Brown and Levinson, and how far these strategies affect polite style then, dealing with Politeness systems theory by Scollon and Scollon. The other part displays a practical application of what has been presented theoretically. Cather's short story On the Gulls' Road is analyzed. This part experiences seven levels and about thirty sub-levels to be analyzed The study concludes by exploring that the three politeness theories are frequently integrated and interrelated to each other in social communications.
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