Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2008, Page 3-332


Linguistic and Extralinguistic Study of Evidentiality In English With Reference to Fitzgerald'sThe Great Gatsby

SAWSAN KAREEM

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 86-98

Evidentiality is a system within a language which tells the hearer how the speaker came about the knowledge that she is trying to communicate. Evidentiality can be defined as the linguistic expression of a speaker's source of information. In English, a speaker making a factual statement uses some means of expressing the source of evidence on which a proposition is based.This paper deals with evidentiality , the coding of the source of information and the commitment on the part of the speaker to his/her statement. Moreover the use of evideniality has a pragmatic implication. Crosslinguistically , the essential distinction expressed is between direct (i.e. perceptual ) and indirect evidence (inference , reports). English expresses evidential distinctions by various linguistic and extralinguistic markers; by means of modal auxiliaries, evidentials adverbials, miscellaneous phrases and etc.

Time, Tense, and the Verb Form in Arabic and English: A Contrastive Study

Abdul-Hussein Kadhim Reishaan; Ph. D

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 99-112

The study of the relationships between the verb-form and tense in connection to both the concept of time and the nature of the denoted action or event represents one of the fundamental aspects of any language. Both English and Arab grammarians talk about such a relationship and seriously intend to account for it. The main points the present study raises are (1) the way both teams of grammarians handle the topic, and (2) the Arab grammarians’ earlier attempts to identify these notions and the descriptive account they have provided for the relationship between such notions. It is hypothesed that:1. Arabic and English tend to show, according to their grammarians, an agreement in more than one respect of these notions.2. The descriptive linguistic efforts of the Arab grammarians concerning the identification and description of time, tense, and verb-form have preceded those of the English grammarians.

Politeness Theories in Conversations with Special Reference to Cather's Short Story "On the Gulls' Road": A Pragmatic Analysis.

Angham Abdul Kadhem

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-68

The current study addresses politeness theory, which is one of the salient pragmatic theories in addition to Speech Acts and Implicature theories. According to a number of linguists, this theory is branched into different theories, three of which are tackled in this study : Politeness Principle Theory, Face Theory, and Politeness Systems Theory by Leech(1983), Brown and Levinson(1987),and Scollon and Scollon(2001),respectively. Therefore, this study aims at investigating linguistically, how polite or impolite styles are measured in conversations? their impact on these conversations, and how politeness theories affect the addresser’s intended meaning? It is hypothesized that politeness theories of Politeness Principle, Face theory, and Politeness Systems work together to decide on polite/impolite style. The violation of some politeness rules does not necessarily lead to impoliteness due to some social relations. To validate these hypotheses, the study falls into two parts. It begins by briefly over viewing the theoretical framework underlying politeness, in particular discussing some definitions of politeness and Politeness Principle and its maxims, exploring the Face theory and its strategies by Brown and Levinson, and how far these strategies affect polite style then, dealing with Politeness systems theory by Scollon and Scollon. The other part displays a practical application of what has been presented theoretically. Cather's short story On the Gulls' Road is analyzed. This part experiences seven levels and about thirty sub-levels to be analyzed The study concludes by exploring that the three politeness theories are frequently integrated and interrelated to each other in social communications.

The Secularization of Christian Imagery in Dylan Thomas's Poetry

Qasim Salman Sirhan; Ph.D

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 3-9

The present paper is concerned with a characteristic strategy in Dylan Thomas's Poetry, i.e., the secularization of Christian imagery through which he takes scriptural symbols and ceremonies out of their ecclesiastical context and applies them to profane human experiences and types. The Bible is the richest source of reference Thomas drew upon. This strategy is intended to perform a double duty in his poetry which is to withstand the crisis of belief in the twentieth century by bringing such divine elements into a humane level on the one hand , and endowing casual life aspects with a sacred hue on the other hand. A number of Thomas's poems are analyzed to shed light on this poetic practice and see what implications it has for the modern man.

Investigating Mukarovsky’s Structuralist Aesthetics inthe Translations of Dylan Thomas’ “Light BreaksWhere No Sun Shines” and “Do Not GoGentle into That Good Night”

Rabi Amir; Maha Tahir; Lecturer; ph.D

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 139-147

A basic requirement in the translation of poetry is not to have the aesthetic value lost.This can be achieved by different means as there are different sources for this value on the levels of reception and production. In poetic texts translators should be aware of the aesthetic sources that make such texts valuable. Two of Dylan Thomas’ poems (“Light breaks Where No Sun Shines” and “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night”) are approached using Mukarovsky’s structuralist aesthetics to analyze the aesthetic sources in the poems and their translations. This approach pursues the aesthetic function, norm and value of texts. The analysis of the translation of the first poem (translated by Rabi‘ Tarbus1995) reveals the aesthetic function, norm and value the translator presents while a translation of the second poem is presented in this research relying on these aesthetic components (of function ,norm and value) in an attempt to produce an adequate translation that enjoys an equal value in the receiving culture.

Image of Woman in Eliot’s“The Waste Land”

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 128-138

To explain the fact that modern man being only half alive with main wish which is death, Eliot in his " The Waste Land" employs many images and the image of woman is one of them. By using woman character, Eliot shows the attractiveness of death as a main theme and develops it by referring to the difficulty of arousing from life death. By presenting women who suffer from boredom, lack of ambition , frustration in love and emphasizing the idea that love which is the source of life leads only to death in this waste world ,Eliot is warning the modern secular man of the psychological, physical and social waste that result from materialism and shedding light on the emptiness of modern love and the meaningless of life.

ARCHAISM AS A STYLISTIC MARKER INSELECTED POEMS BY EDGAR ALLAN POE

BALSAM SALEH ABOOD

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 69-76

Stylistics deals with the study of linguistic features in a certain chosen text .The present paper is an attempt to apply the stylistic modal of Crystal and Davy (1969) on a number of selected poems by the American poet Edgar Allan Poe. The stylistically significant feature, which is traced here, is archaism. The level of analysis dealt with is morphology and reference is going to be made to other levels when necessary. The statement of frequency used is the continuum of frequency. Archaism is used to refer to any term used in relation to any field of language structure for an old word or phrase or structure no longer in use whether spoken or written. There are different stages for archaisms .The use of these stages is very much clear in Poe's poems. Each of these stages draws an effect on the work that is not available when it is absent. In addition to these archaic words, Poe uses historical references to ancient mythological figures or objects. The poems chose for investigation are: The Raven, To Helen, The Coliseum, To Science, and Lenore.

Morphological Deviation as a Stylistic Marker in E.E. Cumming's Poetry

Sami Basheer Matrood

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 76-85

E.E. Cummings's poetry represents an irresistible challenge for linguists who are interested in describing and analysing the aesthetic use of language. He is one of the poets who are often sensitive to the productive properties of morphemes, in other words, he utilizes creativity by producing new words for saturating their aims.(Falk, 1978: 35)Deviant morphology is not merely a minor element of his poetic technique. On the contrary, almost every one of his poems contains marks of such a technique. Readers' understanding of Cummings's art would be greatly enhanced if those readers could understand the machinery behind this deviant technique.The words that Cummings deviantly coins are central vehicles of his poetic message. The present paper is intended to manifest a precise theoretical account of the process involved when a reader encounters a word formed by the deviant use of a morphological process. It may help the reader to use his grammatical competence to arrive at an acceptable reading of the deviant form. Moreover, it sheds light on a range of morphological processes which Cummings violates. Each section illustrates the theory of deviation in specifying the distribution and use of the relevant form in the standard usage, the distribution and use of the forms in Cummings's poetry and the semantic effect of the deviant forms in Cummings's poetic message.Cummings's deviant forms are provided in their poetic contexts in order to substantiate the paper with authentic evidence and familiarize the reader with the mechanism of morphological deviation in Cummings's poetry. References are supplied to page numbers in Harcourt, Brace and Jovanvich's Comlpete Poems: 1913-1963 for each word discussed, for instance, unanimal (620) of this edition of Cummings's poems.

The Psychological Bases of Lawrence'sSons and Lovers: Some Educational Implications

Wiaam Abdul-Wahab Taha Al-Bayati; Ph. D

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 114-127

Lawrence is said to be a writer who, while writing, goes deeper into the human mind and soul. For those who charge him of obscenity and those who think that he calls for the practice of sex as such, a word of caution is necessary. Lawrence’s concept of love and sex is based on the rationalisation of both and directing them towards supreme and legal purposes of pre-creation. He, in fact, identifies the deeper psychological needs of human beings to combine the mental and bodily, spiritual, and physical properties for the sake of achieving a real humanitarian sense of love and sex. Though most of the books on Lawrence have tackled this issue, this study has approached it from both a psychological and educational perspective.

Sublimity in Paradise Lost

Maha Tahir Eesa; ph.D

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 20-27

Sublimity is a concept that is defined differently in different ages. It is one of the aesthetic canons in art that is evaluated differently throughout the literary history .It is associated with what is high and lofty in art and nature. For different scholars there are different sources for sublimity. It is first introduced by Longinus who associated it with the author and the literary work and gave it five sources. Later scholars associated it with the audience. This concept is investigated in John Milton’s Paradise Lost (book III ) to find out the sources of sublimity, Longinus set ,in such a masterpiece.

Reading LiteratureA Dialectic of Schemata

Basim Neshmy Jeloud

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 28-37

Reading or receiving literature is an enterprise that concerns the reader’s or receiver’s attempt to interpret a single text in different ways. The reading experience, in this case, is intensely private and highly subjective. The real reader – it is too difficult to have an ideal reader – has his or her own idiosyncratic background, context, expectations, and interpretive strategies. Thus, research in psychology (especially schema theory), social history, gender studies, or other fields, is valid. This paper tries to fathom the slippery domain that concerns what happens when we read a certain literary text, what sensations and visions that immerse us while we are reading. It attempts to validate the opinion that the general function of literature is to affirm, refresh, reinforce, or change a reader’s schemata.