Volume 11, Issue 2, Autumn 2011, Page 3-160


The development in the concept of the East in European Thought as Exemplified by European Explorers'Writings

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 35-59

Over successive historical eras, the East
witnessed the influx of great numbers of
European travelers who tried their best to
unravel its talismans and secrets. The East
always represented mystery and magic for
the Europeans. Despite the numerous studies
that tackles the European travelers, they
neglected important and basic sides of these
travels, especially the development of the
concept of the East in the European thought.
In addition, these studies lacked a
comprehensive view because of the difficulty
to access all the travels and the intermingling of the studies over the successive periods;
hence, there arose the importance of the
present study.
The study, which draws heavily on
original sources, falls into an introduction
and three sections which deal with these
travels respectively. The sections begin
tackling the pioneers who started the
exploration of the East – the mysterious
world – through the interest in the universe
and its philosophy. Then, they move to the
development of the European thought, viz.
the Middle Ages , or the age of faith, during
which the East became an enemy and a
competitor after the spread of the Arab
Islamic civilization; thence, appeared the
East/West ideology that is related to the
self/other binarism. The third phase dealt
with in the sections of the study is that which
tackles the East as an arena of the political,
economic, and religious competition.
European travelers of various backgrounds,
nationalities , and objectives started roaming
the East; politics intermingled with religion
and exploration. Each phase is characterized
by specific features represented partially by
the travellors.

The concept of the ACTIVISM ISLAM and its political influence ( Shi,i one as a sample)

Oday Hatim Abdul Zahra Al- Mufraji

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 59-76

The term of " ACTIVISM ISLAM "
is one of the political terms used by a
group of religious men in NAJAF and
QUM towns who are believing in the
role of the religious men of treating the
cares of the society , contributing in
the government works and re covering
the " ISLAM CALIPHATE " this
term in cluded the ideas of "
REFORMATION '
REGENERATION ' AND
POLITICAL WORK " which had
been as concepts merged in the 1950s
and 1960s and appeared as reaction to
the prominent weekness and
declination in both of the Iraqi and the
Iranian societies and to the isolation of
muslem religious schools " the
haawzas " that turned in to minor
institutions unable to lead the society
although the term " ACTIVISM
ISLAM " merged in these holy towns
and came from one source , the Islam
religioun the muslem leaders difiered
in the method and in the style of the
work due to the varied political
eircomstances in Iran and Iraq and to
the different social ordeals in both
countries .

The Effectiveness of Teaching by mental Maps in Enhancing The Creative Thinking of First Intermediate pupils'

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 87-100

The aim of the present research is to
investigate . The Effectiveness of
Teaching by Maps in Enhancing The
Creative Thinking of First Intermediate
Pupils' . the researcher made an
experiment which lasted for two
months. She has chosen Al-Gad Al-
Mushriq Intermediate Girl School
deliberately for applying the
experiment . The research sample
consisted of (46) pupils, (23) pupils
for each group, the two groups were
equated in variables (temporal age,
intelligence mid-year examinations
marks, pre-creative-thinking test) for
both research samples and the
intervening alternatives were set . The
experiment was applied in the second
semester of the year (2010-2011) and
the researcher herself taught the two
groups of the experiment. After
finishing up the experiment, the
results were analyzed statistically by
using T-test for two independent
groups groups . The results have
shown the superiority of pupils
performance of the experimental
group on the pupils of the control
group for both, the achievement test
and the creative-thinking test.

The extent to which science processes are considered in content of physics books for the intermediate school

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 100-116

The current search aims to find out
the extent to which science processes
are considered in the content of
physics books for the intermediate
school , content analysis is the way
followed to descriptive approach , and
designed the tool analysis of the
content especially for that , the total
number of pages analyzed (353) pages
after the completion of the analysis
and ensure that charity and
persistence using the equation of
Cooper and the use of a ranger of
experts in addition to the use of frequencies and percentages for the
treatment of statistical , it was
concluded that the book Physics of the
third grade average was more
interested in processes of science ,
reaching a rate of (42.41 %) and books
of physics con cerned with the process
of measurement is large and has the
highest a percentage (18.1%) occurred while the process of using relations of
space and time and the process of
communication at alower rate (1.62%)
and (2.34%) , respectively , while the
neglected books of the three Predicting
process and , in general , the books
have together achieved (11) out of the
process of science (12) and by
(91.67%) .

Analytical study of the Biology Books for the intermediate level in the light of life skills

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 117-133

The Aim of the research is to analyse
books of biology for the intermediate level in
the light of life skills for the academic year
(2010 - 2011), and to achieve this is to build a
list of life skills to be included in the books of
biology for the intermediate level, and
consisted of existing (108) items distributed
on four key areas of life skills is (the skills of
food, health skills, skills, preventive
environmental skills), and included content
analysis of three books by (442) Pages , and
offered based on a group of experts and
arbitrators have been found validity and
stability, and the most important results of
'the guardian Researcher: The Book third
grade average is a book addressed most of
the life skills, as happened on the percentage
(64.92%), while the book was a second grade
average at least interested in life skills, as
happened on the percentage (13.09%), while in the areas of life skills was skills of health is
the most attention as the ratio obtained
(50.26%), while the least attention to
environmental skills, as happened on the
proportion (9.42%), and the researcher
recommended a number of recommendations
including the need to give adequate attention
to issues dealing with life skills in addition to adopting a policy of learning for life in All
participants in the educational process, as
well as the researcher proposed a similar
study of the current study to include other
grade such as primary stage , as well as a
study to measure the level of life skills for
students of different academic levels .

Some intelligences and their relation to the systemic thinking skills of the pupils of second class in the intermediate school

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 149-160

The aims of current research is to answer the following questions :
1.Do the pupils (male) of the second class have the some intelligences ?
2.Do the pupils(male) of the second class have systemic thinking skills ?
3.Is there a relationship between the main student's degrees in scale of Logical
intelligence and main degrees of the systemic thinking skills test ?
4. Is there a relationship between the main student's degrees in scale of Spatial
intelligence and main degrees of the systemic thinking skills test ?
The researcher used the descriptive approach in the current research because it fits
the nature of the research goals .
The researcher build a scale to measure some intelligences , the scale contains (24)
items , with tri-scale , On other side the researcher has build a test to measure
systemic thinking skills , the test contain (12) items , which represent article items ,
each skill is measured by three items .
The sample of the research consisted of (217) pupils (male) of the intermediate
school class located in province Qadisiya , a scale and a test its applied in the first
semester of the academic year 2010–2011.
The researcher used some statistical tools , including (t-test ) for the samples
independent and one sample and Alpha Cronbach Equation to calculate the Test
Reliability and the scale Reliability and Cooper Equation to calculate the Correction
Reliability and Pearson correlation Difficulty Equation and Discrimination Equation.
The researcher has reached at following results :
* pupils (male) have some intelligences (Logical , Spatial) .
* pupils (males) are weak in the systemic thinking skills.
* There is very strong positive relationship between the main student's degrees in
scale of Logical intelligence Logical and main student's degrees in the systemic
thinking skills test.
* There is strong positive relationship between the main student's degrees in scale of
Spatial intelligence Logical and main student's degrees in the systemic thinking skills
test .
In the light of the results the researchers has reached at a number of conclusions ,
recommendations and suggestions .

The Compound Adjectives in Shakspeare's "Macbeth" A Stylistic Study

Ali Abdulhameed Faris; il Sadiq Wakir

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 23-36

The current research endeavors to study the stylistic conduct of compound
adjectives in Shakespeare's Macbeth on the two levels: grammar and lexis. It
attempts to recognize adjective as a literary term mutually with determining its
form and function. Having got an idea about its form and function in syntax, the
compound adjective is highlighted in this study according to its form, frequency
and meaning in the play. All compound adjectives have been calculated in the
play in terms of their existence in the five acts. Consequently, the statistical
analysis shows that they are diverse in their form and frequency in the entire
play. The study indicates that there is a profound relationship between
compound adjectives and the thematic structure of the play. The utilization of
compound adjectives intensifies Shakespeare's immense skill to manipulate
them in a way that matches the different situations and characters of the play. In
addition, they are used neatly and intricately to convey several images such as:
t i m e, sickness, death, evil, blood and nature.

THE FUNCTION OF THE PAST IN ALLEN TATE’S ''ODE TO CONFEDERATE DEAD’’

QASIM SALMAN SERHAN; NEZAR SAHIB MEHDI

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 3-22

Allen Tate (1899-1979) was one of a group of poets known as the Fugitives or Agrarians who participated in the establishment of an independent American literature . One of the major characteristic features that coloured Tate’s works is his reverence of the past of his region , the American South, as connected with the past of the European literary tradition that was prevailing in Europe before industrialism and science had dominated all fields of the modern life . In this respect he draws heavily on T. S. Eliot’s (1888-1965) notion of the continuity of the literary tradition and the connection of the past with the present .
The aim of this research is to trace how the past appears in Tate’s "Ode to Confederate Dead’’ and the role it plays in this poem .
The conclusion sums up the foundings of this study.