Volume 11, Issue 1, Spring 2011, Page 5-193

The political life in Al- Diwaniya city Until the turn of the Twentieth century.

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 62-90

Various natural and demographic
factors took part in determining the location
of Al- Diwaniya city which did not appear in
its present from until the eight eanth country
. With the retreat of Al-Ramahia , its
inhabitants migratend to Al- Hasaka which
made Mustafa Basha ( 1671-1674) change
the centre of Al-liwa , from the former to the
latter However , due to nothing remained
but its name which became associated with
Al- Diwaniya municipality which stared to
crystallize gradually until 1820 .
The earliest reference Al- Diwaniya
city was made by Edward Eves in his
journey of 1754 them came the Danish
tourist Neibour who visited Al- Diwaniya ib
1766 and said about it .
Sleiman Al- kihaiya finally brought his
troupes to Al-Simawa and though ordered
by Baghdad's Basha to with draw ,
continued his ardent until he reached Al-
Diwaniya which was then ruled by Ali-
A,ha.It was also mentioned by the tourist
Ibraham Parsens in his journey to Al-
Basriya (1774) samned Evers(1779) ,and
the Italian sestina (1782).
Al-Diwaniya played a distinguished role in
the local tribal disputes during the 18th
century especially the one between ALAgra'
and Al-Khizail .Each of then trihes
built a castle on the opposins of the
Euprates whith later on become a centre of
residence and gatherings . The most
prominent tribal leader in that era washeik
of Al- khizail Hemont and his son Hamad
Al-Hemond .
From (1877-1892) Al-Diwaniya was
governed by twelve successive mayors
hustability ; The last of them was Ali-Ridha
.The centre of the muncibal administration
was changed between Al-Diwaniya and Al
hilla during the perial (1893-1869) .In 1893 ,
The centre was finally setlled for Al-Diwaniya until the and of ottoman rein Al-
Daghara 1893 to 1912 , eighteen
successive mayors ruled Al-Diwaniya,the
last of them washa During the final word
war , the Ottoman authority appointed Ezat
Bash mayor for Al-Diwaniya.
The fall of Baghdad at the hard of
the British troops in 11march 1917 made
Al-Diwaniya field of fighting and disputes .

Transactions Related to Slave-girls in Old Babylonain period

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 103-124

Ancient Iraqis knew the system of slavery since early periods of
their ancient history. Many cuneiform texts that record different
transactions related to slave-girls have been discovered. Yet they show
that the number of slaves and slave-girls in ancient Iraq was not high
especially in early periods, then it increased gradually owing to the
victory of Assyrian war campaigns to different countries.
The ratio of slave-girls to slaves was usually two to one owing to the
fact that slave-girls served double purposes as concubines and as
slave-girls, like slaves, were regarded private property of their
awners. Therefore, The owners could do any legal transaction related to
slave-girls that he or she ownes. He, or she, could sell, mortgage, hire,
adopt, marry or give freedom to them. Usually all such transactions were
recorded and many cuneiform tablets have been discovered to this effect.
This paper try to introduce samples of different transactions that have
been discovered with notes in addition to the transliteration in Latin and
Arabic alphabet and translation in Arabic. All transactions show that
slave-girls in ancient Iraq were regarded as private property, yet they had
certain rights that slaves in Ancient Greece and Rome did not have

The Semantic structures in Sayid Ali Al-Sistany's book ( Al-Rafid in the Science of Usoul)

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 42-61

The paper sheds light on the
idiosyncratic semantic structures
and their applications in Al-Sayid
Ali Al-Sistany's aforementioned
book .
A number of semantic issues
are covered here such as : the
signifier – signified relationship ,
synonymy , metaphor , ..etc , to
demonstrate the semantic
excellence and distinguished
style used by Al-Sistani .

Optimism - pessimism among the students of the University of Qadisiya

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 162-182

The current research was conducted to identify the common feature of
optimism - pessimism among the students of the University of Qadisiyah, and
the nature of the differences between them in the attribute, listed according to
sex (male, female), and to achieve the research objectives adopted by the
researchers as follows:
Develop a tool to measure the characteristic optimism - pessimism among
the students of the University, has unearthed his honesty and consistency, and consisted of scale in the finalization of (47) items were distributed to (3) areas
(academic, social, and health - psychological).
In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers apply
the measure on a sample of (400) students at the University of Qadisiya for the
academic year (2009-2010), and then analyzed the data using statistical bagful
of Social Sciences (SPSS). The results were as follows:
1. The distribution feature of optimism - pessimism, the students of the
University of cruel closer to moderation as it was found that the
dominant members of the sample fall on a continuum of optimism -
pessimism, at the classified university students to the optimistic and
pessimistic, it was found that optimists outnumber pessimists.
2. There are significant differences between males and females in the
feature optimism - pessimism in favor of males, and what was the scale
toward pessimism, this indicates that males are more pessimistic than
the females. To test this hypothesis test was administered to two samples
independent educational Administration, and the results were discussed
in the light of the theoretical framework and previous studies.

Rituals of Oiling with the Assyrians

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 91-102

Oiling Ritual is considered by the
Assyrians as purification of sins and the
expulsion of evil. So the priests use
pouring oil or wiping it. These rituals
accompanied the religious celebrations
and feasts. The gods are wiped and also
the walls of the temples and the floor.
These rituals are also used in most of the
celebrations of the Royal burial of kings
and the coronation ceremony and
reception of the guests and in the
ceremony of the conclusion of treaties.
They are used during putting the
foundation stone and building of cities
and palaces and the announcement of
marriage. Moreover, this phenomenon
entered into the spiritual side of their life
in reading the horoscope and in many of
the incantations in order to expel the
aches and pains, and the expulsion of