Volume 17, Issue 2, Spring 2017, Page 1-415


Melodic Complexity Evidence from Arabic

By Asst. Lec. Kareem Ashoush Mahdi

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2017, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

In this paper, a new lenition trajectory and a new element are added to the Element Theory by John Harris 1990 to support its role in the phonological government. The new trajectory ’Deemphasisation’ proposed by the researcher is used to throw some light upon the internal structure of four emphatic consonant sounds /ŧ/,/dˁ/,/ɚˁ/and/ȿ/ to be lenited into /t/,/d/,/ ɚ/and/s/ and the element ’E’ is for the phonological representation of the mentioned sounds. Since both, the emphasized and deemphasized couple of the four Arabic consonant phonemes, are of the same place of articulation, manner of articulation and the same state of vocal cords, deemphasisation is considered a new phenomenon which is proposed as a new trajectory different from ’debuccalisation’, ’spirantisation’ and ’vocalisation’ by John Harris and ’E’ is a new element different from labial U, palatal I, none V, coronal R, occluded ?, noise h, nasal N, stiff vocal cords H and slack vocal cords L proposed by Kaye , lowenstamm and Vergnaud (1985).






THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
In government phonology, phonological constituents are hierarchically organized and binary branching. The relationship between adjacent segments is asymmetrical and segment in governed position is no more complex than its governor, KLV.1985-1990. Element Theory by John Harris, 1990 expresses these segments in terms of univalent elements each of which has an independent phonetic interpretation and there is a direct relationship between the complexity of these segments and the governing role assumed by the position it occupies. Elements of a segment are of marked and unmarked attributes with charm values (+,-, o) to specify their ability to occupy a particular position ( U˚ labial ,I˚ Palatal, V˚ none , R˚ coronal , ?˚ occluded, h˚ noise, nasal ,H stiff vocal cords , slack vocal cords . The complexity of a segment is measured by calculating the number of elements a segment has. A governed segment may face some sort of pressure to reduce its complexity by losing elements from its internal structure, Decomposition or it may receive elements to increase its complexity which means Composition. The theory does not have redundant rules or underspecified values

Bertolt Brecht's war condemnation in "Mother courage and Her Children"

Asst. Lec. FahimCheffat Salman

Journal of Al-qadisiya in arts and educational sciense, 2017, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 12-17

Brecht's play mother courage is to be considered as one of the greatest theatrical works during world war II . It represents the writer's criticism of war and capitalism especially dictators like Hitler who built their glory on blood shedding . They were the major reason for human suffering , built up a kind of enmity among human species and used people as a kind of fuel for the wars without taking care of human feelings : The freedom , dignity and rights were confiscating . They also considered war as a glory . Brecht began work on mother courage in Sweden in the summer of 1939 , he was writing it when Germany invaded Poland . he believed that the second world war ended , but the cold war was heating up . The possibility of atomic annihilation overshadowed an uneasy peace .
This study focuses on Brecht's major work and his moral concerns he shows in Mother Courage and will show the reasons that made the writer attack the war as a kind of destruction for all human beings everywhere , The study includes two sections ; Section one includes Brecht's contribution to the epic theatre and his role in achievements in artistic development , Section two mother courage as a symbol of war victims . last giving a conclusion to Brecht's points of views and sums up its findings